I have been through this same situation, except that I was on H1 visa. My spouse was a GC holder and we got married in India. All I had was a certificate issued by the religious institution where our marriage ceremony was held. To register and get the Marriage Certificate from State, we had to wait there for 90 days and physically present to receive the certificate, which was not possible for us as I only had three weeks of leave.
I re-entered US in the same H1-B visa and had no issues. I waited till my spouse became a US citizen and the applied for my GC, which got approved in 4 months.
I had the certificate i got from the religious institution notarized by a notary in India and following are the things I used to prove that we are married while applying for my GC
- Latest tax filing report - filed as "Married Filing Jointly"
- Kid's Birth Certificate with both our names
- Mortgage on both our names
- Finally, the notarized marriage certificate
You will be re-entering the US in your existing F1 visa and if you are talking about declaring your status during the tax filing process, or the W2 you are referring to - declaring yourself as "Single", will not be an issue - but prefer declaring yourself as "Married Filing Jointly" or "Married Filing Separately" - as it might help you when you apply for the GC.
That being said - was entirely my story - please be advised at the same time that
Marriages must be registered under the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 if
the persons concerned were married under Hindu, Buddhist, Jains or
Sikh rites. The Registrar of Marriages will issue a certificate which
the consulate will accept as primary evidence of marriage.
As per USEmbassy.gov
In India, a religious marriage ceremony is generally considered a
legal marriage. However, for marriages registered under the Hindu
Marriage Act (affecting Hindus, Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists), the
certificate issued by the temple or gurudwara may not be legally
sufficient for all purposes. Individuals married under the Hindu
Marriage Act may seek a formal marriage certificate from the Registrar
of Marriages. If one of the parties is not Indian, the registrar may
request a “no objection letter” (see above) and proof of termination
of any prior marriages.
If the parties are married in a Christian, Muslim, Parsi, Jewish,
Baha’i or other religious ceremony, the certificate issued by the
religious authority (e.g., the church’s marriage certificate, the
mosque’s nikah nama, etc.) generally is sufficient proof of marriage,
and no certificate from the marriage registrar is necessary.
Parties who do not wish to marry in a religious ceremony can instead
opt for a civil ceremony pursuant to the Special Marriage Act. Also,
individuals of different religions should register the marriage under
the Special Marriage Act, even if a religious ceremony has also been
performed. This may also require a “no objection letter” (see above),
as well as proof of termination of any previous marriages. You can
download a blank “No Objection” letter here (PDF).
The parties generally are required to wait at least 30 days from the
date of the initial application to formalize the marriage so that the
marriage officer can publish a newspaper ad allowing for the
opportunity for any objections to the marriage to be voiced.
The marriage registrar’s office generally is located in a local
community’s court complex or municipal building.
So, if your marriage was held in a temple, according to Hindu marriage Act of 1955, it might not be valid in US and you will need a Marriage Certificate from the Registrar of Marriage.
But, no one is going to deport you from the US, just because you got married in another country.
PS : The legal information is provided “as is” without any
representations or warranties, express or implied. I make no
representations or warranties in relation to the legal information on
what said above.