Actually, the rules for airside transit do not apply. You will simply enter the Schengen area in Amsterdam. After that, you won't have any entries left on your visa but you can still fly to Norway. By contrast, you could not go to the UK and reenter the Schengen area, even if you just wanted to transit airside in the UK.
As far as the number of entries is concerned, you could therefore just as well leave the airport, spend a week in Amsterdam and fly to Norway after that or even tour several Schengen countries before reaching Norway. As it's all part of the Schengen area, there would only be one entry. For non-stop flights between the Netherlands and Norway, there won't be any border check or stamping of your passport and a single-entry visa is therefore sufficient.