EU citizens who travel to or live in a third country where their
Member State of nationality does not have an embassy or consulate have
the right to consular protection by the consular authorities of any
other Member State. That Member State has to assist these
unrepresented EU citizens under the same conditions as its own
Source: Council Directive Explanatory Memorandum
Short answer: yes. You can report to the consular office of any member country and receive their assistance. Having said that, the consulate will get in touch with the Netherlands' Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This does not mean that they will necessarily call Den Haag because they may have other instructions such as contacting a Dutch consulate in the region, or they may act independently.
The framework for this legislation occurs in the EU Citizenship Report 2010, which says ...
...Dismantling the obstacles to EU citizens’ rights" the Commission
announced it would increase the effectiveness of the right of EU
citizens to be assisted in third countries, including in times of
crisis, by the diplomatic and consular authorities of all Member
States, by proposing legislative measures in 2011 and by better
informing citizens via a dedicated website and targeted communication
measures . The Commission reiterated this commitment in its
Communication of 23 March 2011 on consular protection for
unrepresented EU citizens and announced that it would submit
legislation establishing the coordination and cooperation measures
necessary to facilitate consular protection for unrepresented citizens
and addressing the issue of financial compensation of consular
protection in crisis situations
This was enacted by the European Commission Thursday 25 October 2012 Consular protection for citizens of the Union abroad P7_TA(2012)0394
In all events, you are advised to keep the Netherlands's Ministry of Foreign Affairs email with you so that you can reach them via your mobile or internet cafe, and so on.
Adding at the suggestion of JoeBlow
For your other question, you may choose any member consulate, even if a Dutch consulate is present but does not provide the service you require. This is stated explicitly in the law...
Unrepresented citizens should be able to freely choose the embassy,
consulate or, where appropriate, the Union delegation from which they
seek consular protection. Member States should be able to enter
arrangements on burden-sharing. Such arrangements should be fairly
distributed and take into account the capacities of each Member State
. However such arrangements should be transparent for the citizen and
should not jeopardize effective consular protection.
The protection available from a member consulate is very specific...
- Being the victim of a crime;
- Being detained or arrested;
- Requiring financial assistance;
- Requiring travel documents or other means to verify identity;
- Facilitated procedure in crisis situations;
- Illness or death.
All of these are governed by procedures which range from simple to complex. Financial assistance, for example, requires liaison with the person's Ministry of Foreign Affairs. For all others, the service must be the same as that provided to their own citizens.
The regulations also address honorary consulates and explain that an honorary consulate may act as an embassy only within their competence. Their competence is established by the hosting country at the time the honorary consulate presents its credentials to the hosting country.
The traditions regarding the competences of honorary consuls diverge
among Member States. Honorary consuls are generally in a position to
perform very limited consular tasks. Honorary consuls should only be
regarded as equivalent to accessible embassies and consulates present
in a third country on a permanent basis within the scope of their
competences pursuant to national law and practices.
There is a body of real-life case studies where people have exercised these rights, but it is behind a pay wall and hence no use on SO. However, the main corpus of EU regulations is at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html
There is an explanatory memorandum at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52011PC0881
For others reading this: this answer applies to EU member states only and does not necessarily apply to countries still applying for EU membership, or even countries in the EEA. Also note: some countries, like the ROI and the UK, have opt-outs from various portions of the EU regulations. Also note: the information in this answer cannot be reliably extended to non members like the US, Canada, and so on.