The question often arises after a refusal, and the standard response to your question when it comes from 'official' sources is '...no, each application is considered independently and decided solely upon its merit...'.
In more practical terms, it will inevitably be taken into account and thus may affect the outcome of future applications OF THE SAME TYPE. For applications of a different type, a visitor visa or spouse visa for example, their grounds may be irrelevant. Those types of visas do not require serious intent to pursue a course of study and hence your credibility cannot be assailed.
Based upon what you wrote, the German official, however captious it may seem, identified a serious weakness in your application and refused you on credibility. It means that you did not see this opportunity for them to refuse and fortify your application with an explanation along the lines of '...I will not complete the MBA program in Bangladesh because...' possibly including a recommendation from your faculty adviser that you pursue a degree in Germany.
You can also increase the chances of success by a history of performance. That sort of thing is obtained by travelling to lots of countries that require visas. You can also point to significant changes in circumstances in the intervening time since your refusal. These two things work wonderfully in overcoming the stigma of a visa refusal.
So the answer to your question: 'will it haunt me?' is yes, for applications as a student the refusal is relevant. And the corollary, 'will I be automatically refused?' is no. And the related question, 'does a refusal spill over to other types of applications?', generally no.
Another related question is '...can I get a new passport without a stamp in it and then not declare a prior refusal?...' No, it's a naive tactic that will blossom into a major credibility hit.
The greatest chance for future success is to have your application managed by a licensed practitioner in Germany or in the country where you are applying. Avoid practitioners in Bangladesh generally unless they have documented correspondence status with a regulated EU law firm.