I plan to travel to cities where I can experience weather cycles that I am currently used to. How can one find cities in different countries that have the same weather cycles ?
This might be what you're looking for. You just enter the name of a city and it searches for cities with similar weather records. http://mikemcbrearty.com/climate/
The Köppen climate classification seems like a good starting point. It might not be as fine-grained as you'd like but the various categories seem to line up with the way we experience climate better than looking at quantitative variables like temperature or precipitation.
I will update this answer if someone finds an online resource of
- sunshine/rain ratio
- wind conditions
but currently you need them out themselves and there is no shortcut. See, New York City and Madrid are on the same latitude, but Madrid is much warmer and has no blizzards at all. It really depends on many factors than latitude alone: Is the city flat or residing in a mountain range ? Is it coastal (less temperature range) or continental ? If coastal, is it in vicinity of a stream (warm/cold) ? Are there humid winds or is it dry ? Is it protected from wind or has it a strong breeze ? What is the elevation of the city ?
Even the linked temperature map is only a hint because average temperature does tell nothing about the min/max range. Continental deserts are really hot during the day, but could have freezing temperatures at night, giving a much lower average than expected. Cities build from stone with small ways and no green could be much hotter than a lush city with waterways and white painted wood houses under the same condition.
From what I see location on a continent is much more important than latitude. Further more influences like golf streams and regular winds and wind patterns. And whether you live in mountains or there are mountains between important weather features and you.
As someone living on the west coast of continental Europe, I find most of the coastal areas of Western Europe feel like home, weather wise. I have been on the west coast of Canada, and had the feeling the weather there was not that far different either. And much of the New Zealand west coast, as well as that of Tasmania felt like near enough that I would happily settle there, as I know the weather.
As soon as I travel inland I will get warmer summers and colder winters, but in Europe less so than in the USA or the eastern parts of Russia.
On the other hand, if you are from a subtropical coastal location, only subtropical coastal locations will feel at home.
So I think it is not a case of entering your home location into a website and getting a handy answer with all locations with like weather. Weather depends on so many local conditions.
It might be best to start with looking at a map, locating all features that make your local weather. (For instance, most of continental USA has Polar influences in winter, Golf of Mexico influences in summer. If you live near a west coast but with mountains between you and the ocean, you will be in a rain shadow.