Each charger/power supply/device will have an input voltage/frequency rating that you have to check individually. There is no generic " will/will not work" answer as all power supplies can be different. If the input rating is supported you can expect about the same performance as at your home location.
Generally there are two broad distinctions between power supplies: A Switching power supply and a "classical" pure transformer based Power Supply.
The classical are often simpler and more robust, but are usually bulkier (due to the transformer) and only support a fixed ratio between input and output voltage (based on the transformer windings).
Switched power supplies work based on switching the input voltage on and off in high frequencies (and then smoothing the lower voltage output) and thus need only a smaller (and sometimes none at all) transformer, making it often even fit into a little bigger mains plug. Due to this way of constructing it, they support a wide range of input voltages and frequencies, while maintaining the same output voltage and current.
That said you absolutely must check the rating written/imprinted on the power supplies you are going to use for your own and the devices safety
For those that will not work with other than 220/230V input voltage, you should either use a converter (mentioned in other answers) that converts from 110V to 220V, or depending on the plug type that goes into the device, buy a universal adaptor based on a switching power supply that will have the same or a better output voltage/current rating of the device you need. If you don't know if a given voltage/current rating is a sufficient one, go find someone who does (I have no idea if retail in india is a good idea to ask). If properly formulated in terms of electronic design, you might get more knowledge in answers from http://electronics.stackexchange.com