You're not supposed to take currency out of Russia but I accidentally did it about 8 years ago while on a train journey.
Is there any legal/official way to exchange it now that I'm outside of the country? I have about USD 200 worth.
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The best way is to find a russian community in your country/city.
Many russains send money back to Russia, so they have accounts in russian banks. They also can use roubles during home visit.
I'm sure they will glad to help you change your roubles on USD or whatever (may be you lost some on exchange course, but it's better than nothing).
It's absolutely legal to bring roubels out of Russia, if we talk about sum of 200 USD.
As I understand from your profile you are living in Calgary, Canada.
Here is the list of russian shops. I'm pretty sure you may exchange roubles there: http://zarubegom.com/russkie-stranitsy/russkie-magaziny/
Also contacts of russian community in Calgary: http://zarubegom.com/kontaktnaya-informatsiya/
Supposedly Thomas Cook Foreign Exchange exchanges roubles (and there are offices all over Canada). Have not tried this myself.