I am planning to travel from Chennai (India) to Honolulu (Hawaii). I have the option to travel through Bangkok, Thailand and Seoul, South Korea, and want to know if either of these places will require a transit visa.
Rome2rio presents some possible routings, which go via Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur or Hong Kong (1st stop) and Japan (2nd stop). Any of these would be a good choice for you, since none of these countries require visas for a same-day, same-airport transfer.
Going via the mainland US makes no sense, it's a long detour in the wrong direction.