Next June I'm going to attend a conference+school in Canada for 2 weeks, flying from Europe with a possible layover of some hours in JFK; I am Italian citizen.
Are there some requirements I must fullfill before departure, like e.g. asking Canadian or US embassy in my country for some visa (e.g. ESTA), or possessing some special kind of passport (I think mine is Machine-Readable, since I can look at the two lines of 44 digits each, but not biometric -- does it need some particular kind of photograph?), or some medical test (sorry if this sounds silly) ?