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I am a citizen of Denmark. In 2016 and 2017, I competed in an international competition as part of the Danish delegation. In 2016 it was held in Russia, and in 2017 it was held in Iran. (link to website)

My travel to Iran has affected my ability to travel to the US, and I have to use a B1/B2 visa to travel there. I am not eligible for ESTA despite my status as a Danish citizen.

My question is: Does my travel to Iran also affect my ability to travel to Canada as a tourist or business traveler?

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Unlike the US ESTA program, in Canada, all short-term visitors from eTA-eligible countries may apply for an eTA. If there are questions about your eligibility, you will generally be asked to provide further information through the eTA process rather than applying through the full visa process.

The questions asked in the eTA application do not include any questions about travel to Iran or other "disfavored" nations, so it appears there is no systematic problem with such visits. However, Canada does share information with the US and other countries, so it would be unwise to try to conceal your visit if it does somehow come up.

As always, answer all eTA questions truthfully but do not go out of your way to volunteer information not asked for. The only way to know for sure if you will be granted an eTA or ultimate admission to Canada is to apply and see what happens. I would not be overly worried in your case, but if you want to be cautious, an eTA application is only CAD7, so you can apply before purchasing your airline tickets and see what happens.

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No, the fact of visiting Iran alone does not affect your eligibility for the Canadian visa-exemption program or your admissibility to Canada. The question does not arise during the application process for an electronic travel authorization (eTA). The border officer can question your past travel history in any case, but there should not be any problem if you answer honestly.

As a matter of fact, unlike the U.S., it is impossible for a visa-exempt foreign national to obtain a Canadian temporary resident (visitor) visa; only your admissibility is assessed through the eTA process and at the border: there is no special rules to qualify (unlike for US VWP).

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