want to ask, since the TRP is expired, can I apply for a Schengen visit visa?
Of course you can.
In case I apply, will it highlight the previous TRP of Portugal, and will it have any positive or negative effect on my Schengen visa application to any member states?
It could have a positive effect because you used to live legally in the Schengen area and left voluntarily, which could be seen as a sign that you would not try to stay illegally.
It could also have a negative effect because, well, who knows? A visa officer can manufacture a negative implication from almost any set of facts.
The best approach is to concentrate on your circumstances at the time of the visa application. If you have a well paid job, that will typically support both your intention to leave the Schengen area and your ability to sustain yourself independently during your visit.
Past history is mostly useful for demonstrating compliance with immigration laws, which yours does.