You can enter the Schengen area with the Fiktionsbescheinigung. There is a list of documents that function as residence permits in that they allow the bearer to enter the Schengen area without a visa. The Fiktionsbescheinigung is included with a mention that it only has this function when box 3 is checked. Yours has box 3 checked, so you can enter the Schengen area with it and your passport, without any additional visa.
If you didn't have the Fiktionsbescheinigung, you would be able to use the type-C Schengen visa. The time you spent in Germany with a German D visa is excluded from tbe 90/180 calculation. But since you have the Fiktionsbescheinigung, you should use it, because it reflects greater rights than does the C visa.
The list mentioned in the first paragraph is available for download in PDF format at https://home-affairs.ec.europa.eu/document/download/94241914-26f6-464d-be28-c601d8ded4d5_en. It says:
(Provisional residence document)
Only if the third box on page 3 is ticked – the residence permit continues to be
valid. Entry is allowed only in connection with an expired residence permit,
visa, a valid passport pursuant to Article 10 of Directive 2004/38/EC, or a
German permanent residence card pursuant to Article 20 of Directive
If the first or second box is ticked, the “Fiktionsbescheinigung” does not entail
the right of entry without a visa.