What kind of phone networks are available in France? Which one is the cheapest (in terms of both SIM card prices and internet packages)?
You have Orange, SFR, Bouygues Telecom and Free
From personal experience, Orange is the best but by far the most expensive, SFR is the worst, Bouygues Telecom and Free the less expensive but mobile coverage can be spotty at best
Free is the cheapest, likely the one you'd want, but make sure to check the coverage on this map to make sure not to end up in a situation where you'll have spotty internet at home
(If someone is from Marseille here), can I buy a SIM card and metro/bus service card from the Marseille airport?
There is a shuttle from the airport to Marseille's Saint Charles rail station
There is a special office that will only sell you the ticket for the shuttle which is €10.90. It will allow a further trip on the transport network once you've arrived in Marseille (make sure to get a combined ticket for that)
Once at St Charles you'll be able to get normal tickets (like you will likely want a monthly ticket, you can do it there)
Can I open a bank account on the Passport Talent visa and hotel apartment address? If yes, what bank is a good option for my stay? (I would like to have a debit card for daily transactions)
Yes, you definitely can
But with traditional bank you'll face an issue because you aren't renting an apartment but are staying in an apart-hotel.
So you will not get a justificatif de domicile (address certifier, to certify you're actually living in France, a utility bill for ex.), which is required in all cases to open an account.
The apart-hotel company may be able to provide you with an attestation d'hébergement (paper that certifies you live in someone's property and not in a private property of your own), which will count, along with a justificatif de domicile of their own, as a justificatif de domicile for you
This article summaries it well
Then, you go at any bank branch (price shopping is not on-topic, French bank comparison sites are freely available to suit your needs), get an appointment and the needed paperwork, and you'll be able to open an account