There are various websites that do this for cycling (epic ride weather, my windsock, etc.), taking your planned route as a gpx file. All that I know of are paid. They may adapt for driving, though you might run into difficulties with speed estimation.
Personally, for cycling but also because my only vehicle is high sided, I run my own estimates of where I'll be when, and the weather conditions. It's a little slower, but I never mind spending time with maps etc.
Specifically for wind, I'd first figure out the particularly exposed locations where it matters most. This is useful anyway, so you're prepared for the extra stress of difficult driving conditions. Then I'd estimate when I'm likely to get there (if you're using Google to plan the route, you get an estimated time to intermediate destinations, so put one at the high bridge or mountain pass you're worried about, not forgetting to plan stops). The last step is to look at the forecast for when you expect to be there. Of course you need some margin for your timing to be off, but also for timing errors in the forecast. For snow and freezing conditions you can do something similar based on altitude.
If there are no points that are particularly exposed to the conditions, looking at a representative location for every few hours' drive should be sufficient.
I have looked at automating this myself, having played a little with processing gpx files and scraping websites. But if I ever find the time to get anywhere it will be in a UK context, and for cycling (i.e. based on how fast I might ride, not the speed limit). One thing that stopped me was how much different forecasts can vary for the same location even within the next 24 hours.