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India currently has special rules for travellers from at-risk countries. At-risk countries are:

  1. Countries in Europe including The United Kingdom
  2. South Africa
  3. Brazil
  4. Botswana
  5. China
  6. Ghana
  7. Mauritius
  8. New Zealand
  9. Zimbabwe
  10. Singapore
  11. Tanzania
  12. Hong Kong
  13. Israel

Source: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/ListofCountriestobereferredtoincontextofGuidelinesforinternationalarrivalsdated28thNovember2021updatedon30112021.pdf (emphasis mine)

But as far as I am aware there is no clear delineation of which countries are European and which Asian for countries near or on the 'border' between these (sub)continents.

Did India specify somewhere which countries are referred to? Specifically are Georgia and Turkey included?

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  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.
    – JoErNanO
    Dec 9 '21 at 12:28
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I don't know the answer for the general question, but to answer the sub-question: Turkey is included in the list of at-risk countries, according to the Indian Embassy in Ankara.

In view of the evolving nature of SARS-CoV-2 variant: B.1.1.529, new guidelines have been implemented in India for International arrivals which mandate all passengers from the Countries At Risk to be tested for RT-PCR on arrival at the first points of entry into India. This is to clarify that “Turkey” is included in the Countries At Risk under the first group of countries, in the list i.e. Europe. Consequently, passengers arriving in India from Turkey will be subjected to additional measures of health checks, as notified vide Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India Guidelines for International Arrivals dated 28 September 2021, which can be accessed here.

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    Just a note: If someone does find out about the general question then I will happily mark that answer as accepted. For now marked this as accepted. (As I currently have a voucher with turkish airlines I would be forced to transit through Turkey no matter what, so for me personally this does answer the question. ) Dec 8 '21 at 13:16
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The special consideration given to the United Kingdom indicates to me that "Europe" here means actually "European Union" because geographically it wouldn't need mentioning. Additionally the ministry is primarily interested in political entities, not geography.

As far as the general question goes, the borders of Europe have been pretty unanimously agreed upon for the past 150 years or so. It is a mixture of waterways and mountain ranges, indifferent to the political borders du jour, so that some countries like Turkey and Russia straddle the border to Asia. News to me was that also Kazakhstan's west lies in Europe because the geographical demarkation — the Ural river — is not a national border.

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  • 4
    Do you think the special rules don't apply to those traveling from (e.g.) Switzerland or Serbia? It's possible that they don't, but I wouldn't count on it. What about Turkey, Russia, or Kazakhstan? How would they establish whether you've been in the European portion of the country? As suggested in a comment on the question, it's probably best to assume that these countries are included in the absence of a specific statement to the contrary. And in fact, we have in the other answer an explicit statement confirming that Turkey, a non-EU country, is included under "Europe."
    – phoog
    Dec 8 '21 at 13:46
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    "have been pretty unanimously agreed upon for the past 150 years or so" by whom? You have a lot of different modern border variants: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/… And if you ask anybody who visited Georgia they are pretty likely to group Georgia in Europe, as that's where it culturally fits. (And that's not even talking about the fact that Georgia is/was preparing to formally apply for EU membership in 2024) Dec 8 '21 at 16:07
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    @Peter-ReinstateMonica And where in the world did you get the idea from that continents are a purely geological definition? What defines a (sub)continent is all about convention. Same thing in America, where it is sometimes not split at all, sometimes in two and sometimes in three. And central america sometimes does include mexico and sometimes doesn't. Or take cyprus which many would consider a part of Europe nowadays by virtue of being a part of the EU. These things aren't clear cut, no matter how much you might wish they are. Dec 8 '21 at 17:44
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    All of these arguments over what WE think Europe is, are pointless, and the point of the question. Until and unless someone can show, definitively, what the Indian government considers to be Europe, the question isn't answered. The inclusion of the UK seems to indicate one thing, but perhaps not.
    – CGCampbell
    Dec 8 '21 at 17:53
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    "Turkey was mentioned specifically": but it wasn't. The consulate explicitly says that it is included because Europe is on the list. Specifically, it says "'Turkey' is included in the Countries At Risk under the first group of countries, in the list i.e. Europe," and when you look at the list, it doesn't mention Turkey, which is why they have to make this clarification.
    – phoog
    Dec 8 '21 at 19:37

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