Travel to Europe is possible with various special requirements depending on the destination. Where required, the airline or bordere guards will want to see a regular human-readable proof of a recent negative test or vaccination. In other words, they do not rely exclusively on digital certificates and should be fine with a printed copy of whatever PDF you got or some other documents with the details about the vaccine (type, date, etc.) and the signature from a doctor/nurse.
Once you are in Europe, many countries are currently putting new restrictions on access to museums, long-distance transportation, restaurants, etc. in place For that purpose, anything else than a digitally signed certificate will create problems (it's either explicitely required or expected by the staff). Canadian certificates won't readily work for that and are not interoperable with the EU Digital Covid certificate.
There are provision in EU law for EU countries to issue such a certificate based on proof of vaccination abroad but in practice this is still quite difficult (physical presence or EU citizenship is required, no easy online solution). Several governments indicated they were working on better solutions, see Are there countries that allow tourists to obtain the EU vaccination certificate? for an up-to-date overview.
Beyond that, there are some ad hoc bilateral initiative to recognise vaccinations outside the EU system (e.g. with NHS certificates in France) but none with Canada as far as I know. In principle, you can also get tested regularly to get an EU certificate as needed.