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If I am denied entry to a country like Spain, am I able to buy a ticket to a country that I am certain to be able to enter (I have citizenship)? Note that the country wouldn't be the one that I came from.

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    If you arrive in Spain, and Spanish immigration refuses your entry, then Spanish immigration can (if they're feeling charitable) allow you to buy a ticket to your country of citizenship), or (if they not feeling charitable) direct the carrier that brought you to Spain to return you to the airport from which you departed. What they'll actually do in your case is not knowable. Aug 1 at 3:47
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    @alexfertel no, at that point you are either going out on the first available flight at the carriers expense (to a destination that cannot refuse you) with no option otherwise, or you are going into immigration detainment.
    – Moo
    Aug 1 at 5:52
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    “At the carrier’s expense”, which they will almost certainly try to claim back from you. Check their T&Cs.
    – Traveller
    Aug 1 at 7:48
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    @Traveller dont need the airlines T&Cs for this, its part of the ICAO rules to allow the airline to recover “the cost if transportation” from the passenger.
    – Moo
    Aug 1 at 12:17
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    @Traveller ICAO Annex 9 Facilitation, Chapter 5, part 5.10 icao.int/WACAF/Documents/Meetings/2018/FAL-IMPLEMENTATION/… Just in case you were interested 😀
    – Moo
    Aug 1 at 12:20
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If I am denied entry to a country like Spain,

That's very unlikely to happen. If you don't have proper documentation for entering Spain you will simply be denied boarding in your country of origin. Since the airlines can be fined heavily, they check VERY thoroughly.

If you arrive at a land border, they just turn you around.

am I able to buy a ticket to a country that I am certain to be able to enter (I have citizenship)?

If you are denied entry, the airline is responsible for getting you out of there. How they do this is up to them. You can offer to buy a new ticket but there are in no way obligated to accept this. In most cases, they plane you arrived in is still there and about to go back from where it came and they just will put you back on that plane. They may also try to recover the cost from you since it's your responsibility to have proper documentation for entry.

If you can't re-enter your country of origin (e.g. single use or expired Visa), the airline has to get a little more creative.

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    (-1) That's not the way this actually works. It's true airlines have some obligations but not much is up to them, local authorities are in charge of the process. Also, being denied entry is not that common if you relate it to the number of people crossing borders everywhere but it does happen (e.g. about 10000 times a year at CDG for example) and there is more to being granted entry than having proper documentation.
    – Relaxed
    Aug 1 at 14:07
  • Lack of documents certainly will result in denied boarding, but refused entry can arise for other reasons that the airline can't know about, including the traveler's having exceeded the 90/180 limit or having a criminal record. Being refused entry at an airport is rather more likely than being turned back at a land border, given that Spain's external land borders are only with Gibraltar and Andorra.
    – phoog
    Aug 1 at 18:34
  • @phoog It's not particularly relevant to OP's question or to the answer here, but, for completeness, Spain also has land borders (in Melilla and Ceuta) with Morocco. There are additional checks when traveling from those exclaves to the mainland. I have no idea what happens to people who somehow sneak into one of those places and are then caught upon arrival at the mainland, but that shouldn't be relevant to people who formally enter and are honest with the border guards about their travel plans in order to be properly admitted (or refused).
    – mlc
    Aug 2 at 5:47

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