Citizens of Brazil can enter the area visa free (90 days within a 180-day period). But not sure about residents of Brazil.
If you don't know the answer, you can reply for Argentina or Mexico since I believe they have similar policies.
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No, unless the citizenship of the residence permit holder allows this.
Schengen has a special case for residence permit holders of other Schengen states, but generally speaking they go by citizenship. The residence permit might make it much easier to get a visa, but a visa would still be required.
It's not so much the citizenship or residence that matters, but the passport that you are using for travel. If you are travelling with a Brazilian passport, then you should be allowed to enter without a visa, just like other Brazilian passport holders.
If using another passport, you should check the list of countries whose nationals are exempted from holding a visa. Argentina or Mexico passport holders, would not need a visa.
This is not specific to Brazil, by the way. Even a resident of an European Union country outside the Schengen zone, might still need to apply for a visa to enter a Schengen country.