I'm flying to Africa with Qatar Airways. Baggage allowance shows as 30 kg but I was wondering if I can take two bags that weigh 23kg each instead of a single bag
Assuming that you are allowed to take 2 bags according to your ticket, you will have to pay for excess baggage for any additional weight over 30Kg
According to the Qatar Airways Excess Baggage page, in the section on flying to Africa, these fees range from $USD15Kg to $USD45/Kg depending on where you start your journey.
You stated you want to take 2 x 23Kg bags = total of 46Kg, which gives an excess baggage amount of 16Kg. Thus your excess baggage fees would range from $USD240 to $USD720. Whether this is worth it is up to you.
Note that the excess baggage page suggests that you can save money by buying your excess bag allowance ahead of time, rather than paying at the check-in counter. However I don't know how this works:
Purchase additional baggage allowance and save up to 20% on excess baggage fees through qatarairways.com, Qatar Airways ticketing offices and Customer Contact Centers.
Note also that at the bottom of that page there are links to excess baggage calculations if your trip also includes legs with the partner airlines of British Airways and Royal Air Maroc. I'm not sure how these figure in, and you haven't described enough details of your flight to know if they are relevant.
Finally, this advice is something I'd definitely do if I was considering excess baggage - call them!
The rates and conditions below apply to Qatar Airways' operated flights only. If your itinerary includes flights operated by other airlines, different baggage rules may apply. Please contact your nearest Qatar Airways ticketing office, or our call centre to verify the rules and charges applicable to your baggage allowance.
However if you are traveling with your falcon (yes, they have a separate table on that page for flying with your falcon in economy), it can cost you up to $USD630 depending on the route.
Your ticket will specify whether you may bring one bag or two bags.
If your ticket allows one bag, the bag must weigh 30kg or less. If your bag weighs more than 30kg, you will be charged extra.
If your ticket allows one bag and you bring two bags, you will be charged for the additional bag. Each bag must be less than 30kg; if either bag weighs more than 30kg, you will be charged additionally for the extra weight.
If your ticket allows two bags, each bag must weigh 30kg or less. If either or both of your bags weigh more than 30kg, you will be charged extra.