Not exactly like you've described, but close...
citizenM hotels use an automated check-in system. Upon arrival at the hotel you enter your details, swipe your credit card, and the system issues you with a keycard that gives you access to your room. You then use the same kiosks to checkout at the completion of your stay. At no point do you deal with a human.
Many hotel chains, including Hilton and Marriott hotels, also offer some form of e-checkin and digital key combination, normally using an app on your phone. This allows you to check-in from your phone, use your phone to open the room to your door, and then check-out using your their app - so again, no human interaction.
However in at least some cases these e-check-in/digital key systems will require you to visit the front desk, in particular to show ID (especially where required by law) and/or your credit card (especially if it's a card you haven't used at that chain before).