For countries that only record your entries and exits electronically without a placing stamp on your passport, can visa officers check for this information on their database? Since they won't be able find the stamps for the countries.
The simple answer is somewhere between 'Maybe' and 'Nobody knows' (or at least, nobody that is likely allowed answer the question).
It is widely reported that certain countries do share information like this between each other. For example, as a part of the "Five Eyes" agreement you could likely presume that US Immigration staff has access to entry data for (at least) foreign citizens to Australia (which does not stamp passports, or even place physical visas in passports any more).
However there is no public information about how widely such information is shared, or whether it would routinely be used to confirm details provided during a visa application.
If the intent of your question is to fabricate a travel history (eg, by claiming to have visited countries that do not stamp passports), then this would be unwise. Even in situations where countries do not routinely share such information, it would be likely that they would have mechanisms for obtaining such details on request - and being caught in a lie around information like that is almost certainly not going to end well...
Yes, starting in 2022 when the electronic passport stamp is expected to be introduced in the Schengen Area, checking for overstays will be done
- it is, indeed, the main purpose of the introduction in the first place
Allthough the 90/180 days rule is flexible for the traveler (once they figure out how it works), miscalculations often cause problems.
The intoduction of the Entry/Exit System (EES) system is expected in 2022 (after the introduction of the ETIAS system) and will replace the physical passport stamp with an electronic 'stamp' contained in the EES system.
The main goals will be to check for overstays
- upon entry, exit, issuing of Visas and ETIAS applications
- checking capabilities for local authorities about legal status of travelers
- for travellers a Web- Service will be offered to check how many days longer they can remain in the Schengen territory
The collection of this data must conform to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
The exchange of this data with countries that do not have there own version of GDPR will be problematic.