How does a traveler get a refund when they miss a flight and how do they deal in case they miss a connection flight because of a previous flight?
EDIT: Since the question's been labeled as too broad and general, I'll add a few details in order to restrict the question for comprehension target. Maybe I'll be going to consider more scenario as well as I'm writing
Considering circumstances not depending upon the traveler and considering that the traveler has taken as many precautions as possible (such as arriving heavily in advance), what does happen if
1) a direct flight is cancelled and the traveler did not make a insurance for it. Is the company liable to refund them or are they going to put them in the next flight?
2) a lay-over flight is cancelled and how will the company manage the lay-over flight AND consequently final one (is the issue usually managed by only one company for both flights or one for each related flight)?
3) the check-in staff is stubborn/childish enough for not willing to give me a refund or put me in a further flight? Who am I going to resort/appeal to if I meet such unprofessional people?
Moreover, is insurance required in order to get a refund IF there's no further flight?