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How does a traveler get a refund when they miss a flight and how do they deal in case they miss a connection flight because of a previous flight?

EDIT: Since the question's been labeled as too broad and general, I'll add a few details in order to restrict the question for comprehension target. Maybe I'll be going to consider more scenario as well as I'm writing

Considering circumstances not depending upon the traveler and considering that the traveler has taken as many precautions as possible (such as arriving heavily in advance), what does happen if

1) a direct flight is cancelled and the traveler did not make a insurance for it. Is the company liable to refund them or are they going to put them in the next flight?

2) a lay-over flight is cancelled and how will the company manage the lay-over flight AND consequently final one (is the issue usually managed by only one company for both flights or one for each related flight)?

3) the check-in staff is stubborn/childish enough for not willing to give me a refund or put me in a further flight? Who am I going to resort/appeal to if I meet such unprofessional people?

Moreover, is insurance required in order to get a refund IF there's no further flight?

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    How one seeks a refund will depend on multiple factors; the factors determine if a refund is available, and how to claim it. The factors are: what airline(s) are involved, the routes flown on each flight, the class of ticket(s) you purchased for each flight, the reason(s) for the missed connection, and the terms of any travel insurance you might have (either directly purchased by you or provided to you under the terms of a credit card you used to pay for the flights. – DavidSupportsMonica Nov 19 '19 at 18:33
  • If you miss a connection flight because of a previous flight, the carrier fix it for you (gives new tickets) with no charge. This has happened to me a couple of times. – JuanCa Nov 19 '19 at 20:18
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    @JuanCa This is not correct. If the previous flight is on the same ticket, the airline will get you to your destination, but perhaps delayed. If, on the other hand, the previous flight is ticketed separately on a different airline, the airline whose flight you missed has no obligation to carry you onward. – DavidSupportsMonica Nov 19 '19 at 21:20
  • @David supports Monica That is correct. In my case, the previous flight always was on the same ticket. – JuanCa Nov 20 '19 at 14:12
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This is a fairly board question, and the details will depend on the exact situation, but in general...

If you miss a fault due to anything that is not the fault of the airline, then generally there is no way to get a refund. Once you miss the flight, most airlines will cancel the ticket (including any remaining future flights on the same ticket), and unless you have a "refundable" ticket (and sometimes even if you do) there will be no chance to get a refund.

Some airlines may have a policy that if you arrive at the airport shortly after the departure of your flight they will attempt to put you on a later flight for no charge, or for something less than the full price of buying a new flight, but this is very airline dependent and not something you can generally count on.

If you have travel insurance it may provide coverage of some form if you miss your flight, but again it will depend on the specific policy, and likely also the reason you missed the flight.

If you miss a connecting flight due the inbound flight being delayed, AND both flights were purchased together, then it is the responsibility of the airline that provided the inbound flight (ie, the one that caused the delay) to "re-accommodate" you on another flight to get to your destination. Again, exactly how they do this will depend on the airline, as well as any regulations in place, but in general at a minimum they are required to move you to a later flight in order to get to your destination.

If the two flights were with different airlines then officially this responsibility falls to the airline that caused the delay/misconnect, however in many cases the airline you are connecting to will also be able to arrange a new flight - although technically they can just refer you back to the original airline to arrange it.

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