Per Emergency Communication Version 1.0 01 July 2021 - GSMA (PDF)
When an end user dials a number related to an emergency, or a [sic], the UE shall check if this
number is identified as a valid emergency number.
The following nominal cases are identified by the UE as valid emergency scenarios:
- Standard emergency numbers dialled by the user (112 and 911) [...]
If the UE has identified an emergency number (as defined above), the UE initiates a
emergency call setup procedure, enabling high priority in case of network congestion.
Translating from telecomese to English, if any GSM-compatible (read: modern) "User Equipment" (read: mobile phone) anywhere in the world dials 112 or 911, the network must treat it as an emergency call and route to emergency services. All other numbers are country-specific.
Obligatory disclaimer: just because the official standard says something doesn't mean every phone or every network actually complies in real life, but in practice this is basic stuff and they all do. Also, the relationship between GSM the original 2G standard, GSMA the association, and newer standards like 3/4/5G is complex, but the doc above was last updated in July 2021 so yes, it's still current and relevant.