Based on the Foreign Office - Consular Services Visa page there is no special visa for non Jewish spouses of Israeli citizens.
US-Citizens do not need a B/2 Visitor's visa:
A B/2 visa is granted to someone who wishes to stay in Israel for only a short time (for a visit, tourism, a business meeting or study in a Hebrew ulpan). A person who enters Israel on a B/2 visa is not allowed to work in the State of Israel.
A B/2 visa is valid for up to three months from the date of issue. The duration of the stay in Israel will be determined by the Border Police. A visitor who wishes to extend his visit may submit an application at one of the regional population administration offices of the Ministry of the Interior.
Assume, however, that the last portion of the statement will apply to you.
Consular services for Israeli citizens abroad
There are several consular matters, that require personal attendance of the applicant at the Consular section:
E. Notification of change in marital status
A Pdf form Notification of Change in Personal Status (Marriage, Divorce, Death of a Spouse) can be downloaded here.
Such notifications should be done at a consulate nearest to where a marriage has taken place since the consulate official will be more familiar with how marriages are done in their area of responsibility. Should any varification be needed, it would also be easier to do so locally than from any another country.
The consulate official will, no doubt, be able to inform you what further steps are needed to achieve a long term residency in Israel.