There are a variety of strategies you can use but they all involve a cost of time. I use different strategies in different places.
First and foremost is what we calling "walking the campsite" (because it came from camping trips where leaving something behind could be catastrophic). You literally walk from room to room in the hotel (or wherever you are) looking for your things. I just look for things that I recognize, but if that's hard for you, you could use a written list of things to find and pack away.
Second strategy is not to see if x is still where you left it (by going and looking in the bathroom for example) but to see if it is where it's supposed to be when you leave. Having specific pockets and places for specific things. Chargers are the sort of thing that are often last to pack and need to be gotten quickly, so they can have a special pocket in your bag. Check that pocket before you leave to be sure you have your charger. For your toiletries, again they're typically in a specific water resistant bag, so make sure everything that's supposed to be in there is in there.
Third strategy is to evaluate the places you put things as you put them there. Wow, this plug under the table cries out to have my charger forgotten in it. Then either put a sticky on the inside of the door that says "charger under table" or don't leave the charger there without a phone on it. When the phone is charged, put the charger away until tomorrow. Yes, it takes longer than just leaving the charger there all the time, which I can do on a desk or somewhere obvious. Same with toiletries -- should I make a point of keeping them out here where I can see them, even though that means carrying them into the bathroom when I need them? Or put a note somewhere reminding me they're in a weird place this time?
Fourth strategy is to have spares. I always have at least one spare USB cable, with which I can charge things even if I forgot my charger. I typically have spare nail clippers and other small things - the smaller they are the easier it is to bring spares and the more likely it is you'll leave it somewhere weird and not see it. Travel adapters you should definitely have a lot of because so much grinds to a halt if you can't use the local electricity. For paperwork and documentation, your spares might be photocopies, or digital versions on a laptop or phone, or digital versions in cloud storage that you can retrieve even if you lose or forget the originals.
And the final piece of the puzzle is not to sweat it too much. I once left two good blouses (that I could wear on stage or to meetings) in a hotel closet because I forgot I had brought extras and still had clean clothes in the closet on the last day. I remember the incident, which reminds me to check the closet when packing, but I don't beat myself up over it. The cost of replacing forgotten things is part of the cost of traveling.