You got the Schengen visa, so you have little to worry about. Some people have trouble because some Schengen consulates want to see a certain period of validity in your US status evidenced by a valid visa, making the situation uncertain for people in your situation. But you have cleared that hurdle.
To get into the Schengen area, you will need a visa, which you have, and a credible plan to visit and leave the Schengen area that should be fairly close to the one you presented in your visa application. In other words, as long as you don't change your plans too much, you shouldn't have any problems.
A US airline may ask to see your visa when you leave (European airlines do not do this on departure, in my experience), but since it's not required to have a valid visa to leave the US, they should allow you to leave even if you show them an expired US visa or no US visa at all. They will be far more interested in your Schengen visa.
After you land in the Netherlands, nobody will care about your US visa until you get to the US consulate in India, where you will get a new one.