Im 18, never had a passport, and crossed US-Canada Border last month by car using my Vermont Enhanced Drivers License. My plan was to drive to Alaska and fly home from there, but an unexpected family event requires me to prematurely go back to the US in one week and I am too far from the US border to expedite my trip and get to an American airport (currently high up in Yukon). Can I plead my case at a Canadian airport and use my EDL for them to verify my citizenship? Thanks.
You will almost certainly be unable to board a flight to the US with your EDL, since it is explicitly prohibited by the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, which brought EDLs into being in the first place.
You could in theory get an emergency passport at a US consulate, but from your description of your location you seem to be closer to airports in Alaska than you are to any US consulate. Besides, the nearest consulate is in Vancouver, and if driving to the US border is going to take more time than you have then so is driving to Vancouver.