Im a non-eroupean student living in Belgium with temporary resident permit identity card. Can I travel to the UK with this ID card?
We can’t answer that without knowing your citizenship. Your Belgian residence permit is irrelevant, it does not give you the right to enter the UK if you need a visa by virtue of your nationality. You can use this tool https://www.gov.uk/check-uk-visa to find out.
If you can enter the UK visa-free, you will need travel ID appropriate to your chosen transport and a passport to enter the UK https://www.gov.uk/uk-border-control/before-you-leave-for-the-uk