It won't work like that.
When you check in for your flight to the US, you will have to show your US passport, so that the airline can verify that you have the right to enter the US. The airline will send your US passport information via APIS, so there won't be any mismatch.
In the rare event that they screw up and do not send the correct US passport information to APIS, they'll get a "do not board" message back. If for some reason that doesn't happen and they board you anyway, you'll get a big X on your receipt when you use the APC kiosk at US immigration (because the kiosk checks your passport against the flight manifest from APIS and prints the X if there is a mismatch) and you'll probably get more than the usual questions when you speak to the CBP officer.