Under virtually all circumstances if an airline fails to deliver your luggage to you when you arrive at your destination airport, they will deliver it to you wherever you are. Failure to deliver luggage is almost invariably the fault of the airline so they have to bear responsibility. (It's not as if weather could have delayed your luggage without delaying you).
Normal circumstances is that they will deliver your luggage to your door no matter where you are. I've certainly had this happen several hours drive away from the airport, and I've heard of cases where it happened even further away. Even if your trip is very short, they should make a good effort to get it to you.
In some circumstances it may be better for both of you to negotiate a delivery that is achievable. If you are taking another flight very soon, and the airline is not confident they can get the luggage to you before that flight, it might be easier to agree that it should be delivered to your next destination than to have them try to deliver it quickly, not quite make it, and end up with it being still delivered to your next destination but later. (That's true even if your 'next desination' is back home). You should always talk to the airline representative when you report your bags missing and get them to agree when and where the bags should be delivered.
There should be no circumstances in which the airline refuses to deliver your baggage to where you are because it's too far to go.
You should also be aware that you can in fact make claims against the airline for expenses you incur solely because of a luggage delay. If they take a day or so to deliver your luggage, you can often buy clothes or items you need for that time and then claim the cost from the airline. If when you talk to the airline they say they won't be able to get your bags to you for a day or so, negotiate with them about what is reasonable for you to buy and claim from them. Some airlines will fight this harder than others, but it's not an unreasonable thing to do.