No, this is not possible as as the receipt only proves your legal status in Italy. you are only allowed to enter and exit the Schengen area through Italy.
Verified by the Polizia di Stato website:
Foreigners awaiting renewal of their residence permits can leave and re-enter Italy if they hold:
- the receipt issued by Italian Post offices (Poste Italiane S.p.A) certifying the submission of the application for
- renewal of their residence permit or EC residence permit for
- the expired residence permit;
- their passport or other equivalent travel document
The same facilitated procedure is granted to foreigners who have submitted their application for their first residence permits for employment, self-employment, or family reunification, provided that:
- they leave and re-enter Italy through any Italian external border crossing point (cicular letter 11th March 2009);
- they show their passport or other equivalent travel document, along with the entry visa specifying the reasons of their stay (employment, self-employment, or family reunification ) and the receipt issued by Italian Post offices (Poste Italiane S.p.A.);
- they do not transit through other Schengen countries, as this is not allowed.
Note: You will need to carry the receipt at all times if you do travel.