I took a domestic flight from Toronto to Vancouver, and transited to an international flight leaving Canada. When I got to the region for international departures,there was someone (looked like normal airport staff) who looked at my boarding pass and let me through. No one checked my passport, nor did I pass through any automatic kiosks/e-Gates where my passport was scanned.
This confused me because every other country I'd been in had immigration counters checking the identities of people leaving. I was afraid I'd accidentally taken the wrong path in the airport and skipped passport control, and 'illegally' left the country, but things seemed to be fine when I entered Canada again. Surely they are still somehow keeping track of people leaving -- how do they otherwise know if people overstay visas/are escaping fines etc.? So the question is how? Do they get the names of passengers who boarded from the airline? Do they check as I check in in Toronto? None of these would seem very 'safe' options if I were the government since airline staff don't have the same training as immigration officers. Am I missing something after all?