My student visa has already expired in October, but I’ve already applied for a renewal back in August. They gave me a recipisse de demande de carte de séjour which is valid till February 2019. This is my first application and I’m still waiting to receive my carte de séjour since I renewed. I'm currently in the Philippines for the holidays and I’m supposed to be back on the 7th, will I be able to re-enter France with the recipisse? I've been so stressed about this.
Unfortunately no, because this is your first demande for a carte de sejour. If you leave France, your application will be considered abandoned and technically you would be required to apply for a new visa from your home country.
In which it says (badly translated):
You have a receipt for a first application for a residence permit, or a temporary residence permit as an asylum seeker, or a receipt for asylum seekers
and gives the result:
To cross the borders, you will need to apply for a consular visa back to the French consulate of the country in which you are staying.
However, if you are a national from a visa-free country, you may be able to exit and come back. Technically the law does not support it, but people do it all the time. I wouldn't recommend it personally.
If your nationality requires a visa to enter France as a visitor, you definitely cannot.
edit: I just read that you're from the Philippines and that you're already out of the country. Unfortunately, you require a visa to re-enter France at this time. I would contact the French embassy in your locality as quickly as possible.