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I'm an Australian citizen and a Russian resident for five years. Do I require an exit visa to leave Russia? If so, where do I get one and how long does it take?

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    What document do you have? A student/work visa, a Разрешение на Временное Проживание or a Вид на жительство? – Crazydre Nov 28 '18 at 9:49
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This depends on the type of residence permit you have, per article 24 of the Law on exit and entry (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_11376/566e2940d341c242da303fef644d3e7806d44691/).

In case of a permanent residence permit (вид на жительство), you don't need any other document to enter or exit the country (and its de facto possessions).

In case of a long-stay permit (разрешение на временное проживание), you also need a temporary resident's visa (виза временно проживающего лица, category ВП), colloquially exit-entry visas (визы «выезд-въезд»). Since amendments in legislation promulgated in 2017, these visas are always for multiple exits and entries and up to 3 years of validity. They are now issued automatically together with the residence permit, but if your residence permit was issued before the law was changed, you still need to apply for it separately.

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Obviously you don't need a visa to exit Russia, it's not North Korea after all.
All you need to exit Russia is:

  1. An identification document in English (so your passport is just fine)
  2. Something permitting you to enter the country you are heading in (a visa or just a passport of a country which has a no-visas agreement with the destination country)
  3. Don't try to carry anything export-prohibited (nothing a common person can posses, so no worries)

Beware depending of the type of document which permits you to stay in Russia it may be voided when you exit Russia or when you stay outside for too long.
After you may or may not be able to request a new one.

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