gerrit's answer is correct regarding the green zone, but there appears to be some confusion regarding what the other zones look like.
TL;DR: Unless signs say otherwise, the maximum speed is:
- 130 km/h for motorways
- 50 km/h in towns
- 100 km/h on main roads (which are shown by the green zone and uninterupted lines on the side)
- 80 km/h for "other roads" (those that are not of one of the above types)
First you'll have to understand that there's an order to rules, with the higher ranking rules overriding all others:
- Instructions by traffic wardens and police override all other rules
- Lights (including those that show a different speed) come just after instructions (yes, this is why you get to "ignore" lines at traffic lights)
- Signs (borden in Dutch - the type generally on a pole) come after instructions and lights. This is most common with roadworks on smaller roads and roads with speed limits that got adjusted temporarily or permanently after decorating.
- Paint (tekens in Dutch, also called signs in English, but it really refers to paint on the road). Yellow paint goes before white paint.
- Rules. Unless there's one of the 4 above things overriding them, the rules are always a fallback.*
*This is a bit of a generalization. Use common sense. Generally, the lowest speed counts. If the rules say your car with trailer can only go 100 km/h, you're not suddenly allowed to go 130 km/h because a sign says so.
Now, about the lines on the road and the rules regarding them.
The rules say that the maximum speed on main roads is 100 km/h, inside of towns it is 50 km/h, on motorways it is 130 km/h and on "other roads" it is 80 km/h. Signs and lines can override this.
Images courtesy of driving school Ben Verhagen.
The shape of the outer lines and the colour of the inner lines specify the speed you're allowed to go. The shape of the inner lines decides whether you're allowed to pass or not.
The green area in the middle along with an uninterupted, continuous white line on the side means the maximum speed is 100 km/h (small interupts of a few cm are to stop the paint from damaging and don't count as interuptions). Technically, these are the only lines with meaning. These make a road a "main road" with a speed limit of 100km/h. 80 km/h is the default speed for "other roads" and the 60 km/h areas require signs.
On this particular road, you're allowed to pass because the middle lines are interupted.
Interupted lines on the side, with any type of middle line mean the maximum speed is 80 km/h. On this particular road, you are not allowed to pass, because the middle lines are continuous. This signifies the road as an "other road", but technically all roads other than motorways, town roads and main roads are "other roads".
Interupted lines on just the side and no other lines means the maximum speed is (generally) 60 km/h. Technically these don't have meaning unless accompanied by a 60 sign (a 60 zone sign is okay too, it counts until you pass the "leaving 60 zone" sign), but I've never seen lines like this where I wouldn't recommend going 60 km/h anyway.
If there are any signs or lights that show a maximum speed, they will override what the lines say. If there are no signs and the lines follow none of these 3 examples, the maximum speed follows the rules (50 km/h in towns, 80 km/h on normal roads and 130 km/h for motorways).
Source: This booklet by Rijkswaterstaat (government) with the rules in (and I have a Dutch drivers license, so I passed the exam)