No you do not.
Kuwait offers visa free transits. For transits of 8 hours or more, you will be accommodated at the airside transit hotel.
The timatic database confirms with the following:
Transit - Kuwait (KW)
TWOV (Transit Without Visa): Passengers with a confirmed onward ticket
for a flight to a third country within 24 hours. They must stay in the
international transit area of the airport and have documents required
for the next destination.
Additional Information: Passengers in transit for more than 8 hours
must be accommodated in the airport transit hotel.
The airport is going through a major renovation. Two new terminal buildings have opened. Depending on when you are flying, you may be lucky enough to use the Kuwait Airways-only terminal 4.
Terminal 4 has excellent relaxation and seating facilities. It is brand new (first flight was on August 8, 2018) - only flights to Dubai and the Hajj flights have used this terminal so far.
The downside is that not everything is open at T4 yet. Food outlets are few (if any) and there are even fewer shops open.
Chances are good then, that you will be using the current terminal. This is a very crowded, very busy place.
- Its small, easy to navigate. You won't get lost.
- Lots of very good food options
- Decent shopping - limited to chocolates, cigarettes and perfumery.
- Multiple lounge options (Marhaba / Pearl Lounge, MasterCard Lounge, Emirates Lounge).
- Chances are good you will be on one of the brand new 777 aircraft. There is generous seatroom / legroom (even in economy).
- Limited seating and even more limited power sockets. To find quiet place to relax, go past gate 26 (avoid going downstairs) and you'll see a new seating area with a small cafe.
- Very, very, busy and very very crowded. Especially as its the summer peak season of travel.
- Gates change often, sometimes without notice.
- Transit desk is an exercise in patience (you may need this desk if you don't have the ongoing boarding pass).
- Kuwait airways doesn't have the best on-time record.