It's hard to find a concrete information because everything is related to having a US visa, coming from or going to the US, which is not the case. We are leaving from Manila to Seoul, then to Addis Ababa and then to São Paulo, Brazil. Our layover length in Seoul is only 2 hours and 30 minutes. Is one of us required to have an airport transit visa?

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    You might find this to be a helpful tool, and let you check your various options for this trip faster than asking a question here about each itinerary: skyteam.traveldoc.aero – etmuse Aug 23 '18 at 13:33
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    Similarly, you may want to take a look at the Wikipedia page Visa requirements for Philippine citizens. (There's a corresponding page for Brazilian citizens.) This gives a summary of the requirements for a Filipino citizen to enter a country, but the transit requirements will not be more stringent than that, so you might be able to construct a viable itinerary that way. – Michael Seifert Aug 23 '18 at 13:44