I saw a documentary that seemed pretty legitimate, but at one point they referred to "Cantonese people" and it confused me.

It was about modern times (~2018) so it definitely wasn't a historical reference.

I know Guangzhou used to be called Canton, but I thought "Cantonese" was only used to refer to the Cantonese language which is spoken by many people from Taiwan/Hong Kong.

If someone is from Guangzhou, are they "Cantonese"?

And if someone is "Cantonese" does it mean that they are from Guangzhou?

closed as off-topic by Crazydre, David Richerby, Giorgio, Thorsten S., gmauch Aug 21 '18 at 23:18

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    Re: language & Taiwan, I think you're confusing Cantonese (which is spoken in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau) and the Traditional Chinese characters, in use in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau (as opposed to Simplied Chinese). – jcaron Aug 21 '18 at 14:39
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    I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because it's not about travel – Crazydre Aug 21 '18 at 15:04
  • This question may be fine in Chinese Language SE. – Blaszard Aug 22 '18 at 7:51

Not quite. It means that they are from the Guangdong (from which the word Canton is derived) province. Cantonese food, language, people: the word Cantonese has many uses, and is not limited to the language.

Also, note that the Cantonese language is not even a decimal point in the language stats in Taiwan. The three Chinese languages spoken there are Mandarin, Minnan (Hokkien) and Hakka.