Is there ever a chance for the name of a passenger to be entirely different from the one on his passport to be printed on the baggage tag?
closed as unclear what you're asking by David Richerby, Jim MacKenzie, Giorgio, Itai, Henning Makholm Aug 16 '18 at 12:36
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In general, it's unlikely, but there are circumstances in which it could happen.
The name on the bag tag would normally come from the computerized reservation system, so if the reservation was booked in a name other than that on the passport, the bag tag would also not match the passport.
Normally, if a traveler attempts to check in for an international flight with a passport that does not match the name on the ticket, the airline would refuse boarding. But if the flight is domestic, it might be possible to fly with a different ID or, in some countries, without showing ID.
It's possible for a person to have two IDs with completely different names, since people can change their names, and people can have different legal names in different legal systems. Someone with multiple nationalities could even have two valid passports with entirely different names.
Finally, there is also the possibility that the traveler's bag was mistakenly labeled with a tag printed from someone else's reservation.
If you're traveling with a group, the check-in agent doesn't usually spend extra time to identify the owners of each bag by name; they'll just tag the bags with one of the names on the reservation. There's not usually a "which of the passengers on the same reservation does this bag belong to?" step.
So if you and your spouse check in together, your baggage tags might have your spouse's name on them and vice-versa.