I hold a Philippine passport. I recently applied for a visit visa (short stay) for Belgium and it got approved. I currently live in Dubai and have a job here but my UAE residence visa will be canceled since I've been terminated. I know the UAE visa is a requirement for the application but since I already have my Schengen visa, I wanted to ask: can I still travel to Belgium next month? Help me out please.
The UAE visa was required for your application in the UAE because the Schengen Visa Code requires you to be legally resident in the jurisdiction of the consulate where you apply (Article 6). Having a UAE visa is not by itself necessary for travel to the Schengen area.
The thing you ought to be concerned about is that the visa should be revoked when the conditions for using it are no longer met (Article 34(2)). Unless you have found a similar job before you travel to the Schengen area, or you somehow managed to get the visa without telling then the details of your employment, it is possible that your visa could be revoked. You also need some other country that you can go to after leaving the Schengen area (presumably now the Philippines), and you should have sufficient ties there that you will want to go there rather than remaining in the Schengen area. All of this is called into question by your recent termination and the loss of your residence permit.
To avoid having the visa revoked on arrival, you might want to report your change of circumstances to the consulate and ask them whether it is a sufficient change to warrant revocation of the visa. This is most likely to go the way you hope if you already have a new job.