I'm an Indian student currently studying in Canada on a student visa. Do I need a travel visa to visit my home country?
No, you do not. Your home country passport is all you need.
In general, every citizen of a country always has the right to return to their home country. Most countries subscribe to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states:
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
As mentioned in the comments below, you should also ensure that you can complete all portions of your travel.
You may need transit visa(s) depending on which countries you are flying through. In practice, I believe that transiting through Europe for an Indian citizen with a Canadian long-term visa requires no other paperwork, but it's up to you to check.
You should ensure that your visa for the country where you are living (Canada) allows you to enter the country more than once. I am fairly certain that this is true for a Canadian study visa.
For some countries (definitely not Canada) you may need an exit visa which allows you to leave the country. Russia and China would be two examples of such countries.