I'm Chinese and currently waiting for my residence permit here in France. I'm not sure if my residence permit will be released before my scheduled trip in Europe. I'm planning to go to Belgium, Amsterdam, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. There is a chance that I will only have my temporary residence permit during my Europe trip. I will travel only by bus and by train. Do they usually check the passport and residence permit in buses/trains? By the way, the visa in my passport is already expired.
There will be occasional checks at least when entering Switzerland, or Germany from Austria/Switzerland, or France from Germany/Switzerland/Italy. However, it's less common on trains than buses.
When entering Switzerland by bus, checks are very common, though not systematic.
I would not recommend you to do this trip if you don't receive your residence permit in time.
There are random checks on both buses and trains. I've had my passport checked when traveling by train from Germany to France and when traveling by bus from Austria to Germany. I also had my passport checked almost every time when traveling to Switzerland, but the last time I went there was 8 years ago.
These checks are seemingly random, and (other than Switzerland) they happened to me less than 5% of the times I traveled across borders within the EU. I suspect checks are more common on trains and buses that are suspected of carrying passengers coming from eastern Europe, but I don't know that for sure.
If you have a temporary residence permit that is valid the entire time you are traveling, then that should be good enough. It shows that you have permission to be there.