It seems that most debit cards issued in the Netherlands are on the Maestro network. Will places that only accept debit cards take my US-issued VISA debit card? From what I could tell, many places aren't familiar with VISA being a debit card.
Edit: For anyone else wondering, it turned out that I could not use my VISA debit card at establishments where only debit cards were accepted. Only cards with a Maestro or V PAY logo were accepted. VISA debit cards do work at ATMs though, so you are able to withdraw cash and pay with that.