I am a refugee in Ireland and I hold a Refugee Travel Document (1951 Convention Travel Document or Geneva Document). I am applying for a job that may require me to travel to the USA. Would this be possible? My passport has been surrendered and rendered unusable.
Yes, you can, provided your B-1 visa application is successful.
For the purpose of US immigration law, the following definition applies:
The term “passport” means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer’s origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country.
Because you are not a citizen of Ireland, you cannot travel using the Visa Waiver Program.