I went to China for my internship in a hotel and we extended my student visa for 1 year, also in China. One day the police investigated and told me that I can't work with a student visa and they deported me. My passport got a deportation stamp. Will that passport cause problems if I try to apply for a visa in other countries, like Australia, Canada, Germany?
This is not about a "stamp in the passport". If you've been deported, then yes - it can affect your chances of getting into other countries. Even if you get a new passport and get rid of the stamp, that will not change anything.
For example, on the Canadian visa application, there's a question - "Have you ever been... ordered to leave Canada or any other country". You will have to answer this question truthfully and provide details. (If you lie, it can have very serious consequences, like being banned for many years. Don't think they won't find out, even with a new passport!)
Yes, most likely. It shows that you in the past have not been trustworthy to adhere to the conditions of visas previously granted to you.
The stamp itself is not the real problem, but that you have actually been deported. Many countries (including Australia and Canada, but not Germany) ask in the visa application form if you have ever been deported from any country. Even without a stamp in your passport, you will in the future, assumed that you are not intending to lie on a visa application, answer that question with 'yes' and expect that to have consequences for the outcome of your visa application.