As of now (Feb 2018), I'm aware of these hotel chains where this is possible:
1. AccorHotels Group (Ibis, Novotel, Sofitel, Mercure, etc)
Ibis Business: for 90 EUR/year you get Gold status with AccorHotels with
all the benefits, like free room upgrades, free fruits, welcome drink, early or late checkout. Plus 5-10% discounts off of their regular rates.
Ibis Business Plus: 170 EUR/year gets you Gold and larger discounts at AccorHotels Group hotels
2. IHG group (Holiday Inn, InterContinental, Crowne Plaza, etc)
InterContinental Ambassador: for 200 USD/year you get Gold Elite benefits (which are pretty minimalistic) at all IHG hotels and special benefits like room upgrades, complimentary fruits or snacks only at InterContinental hotels.
Not a paid "upgrade" but can be combined with the above:
3 Hilton Hotels and Resorts (Hilton, Waldorf Astoria, Double Tree, etc)
Hilton Honors: Runs a permanent (it's been active at least for the last couple of years as of the beginning of 2018) status match program against most of the hotel loyalty programs. Sometimes they would match you without any conditions, sometimes you have to complete several stays within a given timeframe to confirm your status match.