Not sure about the details of your status in Belgium but as far as Schengen regulations (and especially the Borders code) are concerned, what you need to enter the country is:
- A valid travel document
- A visa or something that exempts you from a visa.
The text does not mandate that the visa should be in the travel document or otherwise match it and a court case unambiguously established that a visa in an expired passport together with a new passport is enough. The situation was however different in several ways, as that case was about a short-stay visa and passports from the same country, not a residence permit and passports from different countries. But it supports the notion that the two requirements are to be considered separately.
In general, a residence permit satisfies the second requirement but it is not a travel document and might not be enough to satisfy the first requirement without a passport. Consequently, it seems you need to take passport (3). Depending on nationality (3) and the details of Belgian practices, presenting the residence permit might or might not be necessary but I don't see how you could hope to fly without a valid travel document.
Unless you fall under some explicit exemption (there are some), your expired passport (passport 2) is definitely not enough and does not replace a missing travel document. I would also present it to account for the discrepancy between the nationality mentioned on the residence card and the passport you are presenting and to add credibility to your story but that's the least important of the three documents.
Together with passport (3), I think you should be OK with your other documents. Without it, not so much.