I calculated the route of your trip so that we can see trough which regions you will probably travel. The first part of your trip goes trough Armenia and there is already the first problem. Wikipedia says about the climate in Armenia:
Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging
between -10 and -5 °C (14 and 23 °F).
I think without appropriate equipment you will have some really really cold nights. And because of the lot of snow that you can expect it will both be difficult to find a place to built up your tent and also to travel at a reasonable pace, because the snow will have big impact on the traffic.
Next to that the western part of Iran has to be crossed. Iran has some very different climate zones as Wikipedia states:
On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain)
temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for
the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2
°F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern
part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western
To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower
temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily
temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are
arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional
deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The
coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran
have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers.
So in the northern part of Iran the climate will be very similar to Armenia. You will have to expect freezing temperatures between zero degrees and as far as I understand the Iranian geography, you will also have to cross the Zagros Mountains, which will be even colder.
But after that you'll reach the Gulf of Oman region. There you can expect very mild winters with temperatures between 15 and 20 degrees.
Judging from this information I would postpone the trip until spring, except you can make sure that you will do the first part of your trip very fast (maybe plane or train) and then hitchhike and camp in the warmer regions.