The pertinent information is here on the gvb.nl site, in Dutch.
Bicycles are only allowed in the metro (subway) and in tram line 26, not in other tram lines or bus lines. GVB also doesn't have any trains, if you want to take the bicycle on a train, you'll need different tickets entirely (both for yourself and for the bike).
The GVB supplement is valid for an entire day (so doesn't depend on the number of times you embark), but not during rush hour: bicycles aren't allowed between 7:00-9:00 and 16:00-18:30. This is the rule in trains as well, by the way.
In tram 26 you can buy a paper supplement at the driver, otherwise the ticket has to be loaded onto an "OV chipkaart" at a machine.
I feel the need to add -- if you have a bicycle, why not just ride it :-)