If you have a US visa which is valid (i.e. already started and not expired yet¹), then you do not need a transit visa for airports in the Schengen Area, regardless of your nationality. This requires you to stay airside at the airport between a flight from outside Schengen and a flight to outside Schengen (which is not possible for all connecting flights). Since you're an Indian citizen, you would not need a transit visa anyway, only nationals of a few countries do.
To enter the Netherlands, as a national of India and most other non-European countries, you will need a Schengen visa. Since you will be staying in the Netherlands, you must get a short stay (type C) visa from the Netherlands. You need to apply to a Dutch embassy or consulate in your country of residence.
¹ An expired visa is ok if you're returning from the US after making use of this visa, i.e. if your visa expired on day D, you left the US on day D and are transiting in Europe on day D+1.